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Citation Styles

  • MLA (Modern Language Association) style is used in humanities
  • APA (American Psychological Association) is used in education, psychology, and science
  • Chicago/Turabian style used in business, history, and the fine arts
    • Turabian is simpler than Chicago
  • IEEE used by electrical engineers
  • Softwares
    • BibTeX - Bibliographic TeX
    • EndNote - has %{letter such as A for author} {value}
  • Small
    • Harvard for economics
    • ACS for chemistry
    • AMA (American Medical Association) for medicine
    • Vancouver for varied

MLA Citation Format

Dates are in {day #} {month name} {year} format


Format: Last name, first name. “Webpage title.” Website root title, Publication Date, URL. Accessed date (optional)

AKA Author. “title.” Container title, publication date, URL. where blue=info on where the title is located

  • the container, the website, is italicized
  • URL should not include the protocol (https://)

Eliers, Christian. “What Should I Major In? How to Choose a Major in 9 Steps.” Zety, 22 Nov. 2019, zety.com/blog/how-to-choose-a-major. Accessed 28 Jun. 2023.

Grayson, Joel. “Article Name.” joelgrayson.com, 22 Nov 2022, joelgrayson.com/perspective/article. Accessed 29 Jun. 2023.


Format: Last name, first name. Title of Book. Publisher, Publication Date.

  • Include city of publication before publisher if published before 1900.
  • Book is container so it is italicized

full format: Last, First. Title. City of publication, Publisher, year. Medium of publication.

  • Medium: Print. or Digital file. or PDF. or EPUB.

07.01.2023 screenshot.png

APA Citation Format

Format: Last, F. M. (Year, Month Day). Title. Publisher. URL

  • e.g. Grayson, J. (2006, June 6). Someone was born. The New York Times. https://joelgrayson.com
  • Article title is in sentence case (only first word is capitalized)